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VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY ( VIRTUAL GAMING) ABSTRACT: Linking up the physical world with the digital world where we need to have physical realization of any activity or object while performing a task can prove to be easy with computers and mobiles where they link them up in such a pattern that we can access any other physical device through just physical action or gesture, then it would serve really helpful.So, heading in this direction, this report gives a primary path to explore this technology named- “VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY” INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality combines state-of-the-art imaging with computer technology to allow users to experience a three-dimensional simulated environment called cyberspace. This interactive medium incorporates powerful computers with video displays, sensors, electronic headsets, and gloves. With these tools, users can both see and manipulate a phantom environment that appears real.Virtual reality tools under development include a whole body suit, which, like diving into water, would totally immerse the user in a virtual world. Although virtual reality has been popularized as a new form of entertainment, it has applications in business, industry, and medicine. One key to virtual reality is creating a world that appears real. The images created by the computer and software are extremely complex compared to the relatively simple line-based graphics associated with computer games. Virtual reality images are made with pixels, also known as picture elements, which use hundreds of thousands of dots to make up the images. The more pixels there are per inch, the better or more realistic the image will be. Creating realistic images that can be manipulated is known as "realization." These images can be either opaque, in which all the viewer sees is the virtual world, or see-through, in which the virtual image is projected or superimposed onto the outer world. HISTORY: The concept of virtual reality dates back to World War II and the use of flight simulators to train pilots, but the computerized version of this phenomenal technology can be traced to the mid-1960s. In 1966, Ivan Sutherland conducted experiments with the first head-mounted three-dimensional displays at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory. Although the headset was extremely cumbersome, the user was able to view acomputer-generated three-dimensional cube floating in space and, by moving his or her head, inspect various aspects of the cube and determine its dimensions. Sutherland moved to the University ofUtah, where he built the first fully functional head-mounted display unit in 1970. Myron Krueger also worked on the infant science of virtual reality, first at the University of Utah and later at the University ofConnecticut. His "artificial realities" used both computers and video systems. VIDEOPLACE was first exhibited in 1975 at the Milwaukee Art Center. Using video displays, computer graphics, and position-sensing technologies,Kreuger was able to create a virtualenvironment in darkened rooms containing large video screens. People in the room could see their own computer-generated silhouettes and follow their movements in the virtual world projected onto the screen. In addition, people in two different rooms could see eachothers' silhouettes and interact in the same virtual world. VIRTUAL GAMING: Sound enriches the virtual world. The experience of soaring through the air in a simulated cockpit is more realistic if the userhears the roar of the engines. Sound also enhances participation in the virtual world by providing the user with audio cues. For example, the user may be directed to look for the virtual airplane flying overhead. To incorporate the total experience, the reality engine may use haptic enhancement, which engages the participant's other senses of touch and pressure into the virtual world. Haptic cues however, are complex and expensive and have been used primarily for military and research applications. HOW IT WORKS: Head-mounted display (HMD) units use a small screen or screens (one for each eye) that are worn in a helmet or a pair glasses. Unlike a movie, where the director controls what the viewer sees, including the angle and field of view, the HMD allows viewers to look at an image from various angles or change their field of view by simply moving their heads. . HMD units usually employ cathode-ray-tube (CRT) or liquid-crystal-display (LCD) technology. CRTs incorporate optic systems that reflect an image onto the viewer's eye. Although more bulky and heavy than LCD displays, CRT systems create images that have extremely high resolutions. In addition, CRT images can be semi-reflective, allowing the viewer to see the outside world as well. Such units have practical applications since the user can operate a machine or other device while viewing the virtual world. Although LCD technology has lagged behind CRT in picture quality, LCD systems are slimmer, lighter, and less expensive, making them better suited for home use. These units use liquid crystal monitors to display two slightly different images that the brain processes into a single three-dimensional view. Initial efforts to market this technology to home users failed because of poor LCD image quality. But rapid advances in LCD technology have improved the images, and higher quality LCD-based units have become available for home use. Sound effects in virtual reality rely on a prerecorded sound set that is difficult to alter once the reality engine begins to generate audio. The audio portion of virtual reality is transmitted through small speakers placed over each ear. Audio cues may include voices, singing, the sound of bubbling water, thud-like noises of colliding objects-in short, any sound that can be recorded. Three-dimensional, or omnidirectional, sound further enhances thevirtual reality experience. Sound that seems to come from above, below, or either side provides audio cues that mimic how sounds, like footsteps approaching or a plane flying overhead, are heard in the real world. Three-dimensional sound is achieved through the use of highly complex filtering devices. This technology must take into account factors like interaural time difference (which ear hears the sound first) and interaural amplitude difference (which ear hears the sound louder). The most complex human hearing dynamic is called head-related transfer functions (HRTF). HRTF accounts for how the ear drum and inner ear process sound waves, taking into consideration the various frequencies at which these waves travel as well as how waves are absorbed and reflected by other objects. HRTF audio processing enables the listener not only to locate a sound source but also to focus in on a specific sound out of a multitude of sounds, like distinguishing the call of a peanut vendor out of a crowd at a baseball game. INTERACTION: Gloves in virtual reality allow the user to interact with the virtual world; for example, the user may pick up a virtual block, turn it over in the virtual hand, and set it on a virtual table. Wired with thin fiber-optic cables, some gloves use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to detect the amount of light passing through the cable in relation to the movement of the hand or joint. The computer then analyzes the corresponding information and projects this moving hand into the virtual reality. Magnetic tracking systems are also used to determine where the hand is in space in relation to the virtual scene. Some gloves use haptic enhancement to provide a sense of touch and feel. In haptic enhancement, the reality engine outputs the tactile experience, which may include force, heat, and texture. Tactile experiences are created by re-measuring a pattern of forces, which is programmed into the reality engine and then relayed back to the user when the appropriate object is touched. Virtual reality gloves may use either air pressure (such as strategically placed, inflated air pockets in the glove) or vibrating transducers placed next to the skin (such as a voice coil from a stereo speaker or alloys which change shape through the conduction of electrical currents) to simulate tactile experience. FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS: Many other virtual reality tools are in the phases of research and development. Remote control robotic or manipulator haptic devices are being tested for industry and medicine. Special wands with sensors, joysticks, and finger sensors such as picks and rings will eventually be as common to virtual reality technology as microwaves are to cooking. The technology to control the virtual world through voice commands is also rapidly advancing. Perhaps the most impressive technology under development is the whole body suit. These suits would function similarly to the gloves, creating a virtual body that could take a stroll through a virtual world and feel a virtual windstorm. The potential for virtual reality as an entertainment medium is apparent. Instead of manipulating computerized images of two boxers or a car race, the virtual playground allows the user to experience the event. Disney World's Epcot Center houses a virtual reality system that propels the user on a magic carpet ride like the one featured in the popular animated feature movieAladdin. .Although most entertainment applications are primarily visually based, virtual reality players of the future may also experience a variety of tactile events. For example, in a simulated boxing match, virtual reality users would bob and weave, throw and land punches, and-unless they were very adept-take a few punches themselves. APPLICATION: Virtual reality has practical applications in the realms of business, manufacturing, and medicine:-  NASA has developed a virtual wind tunnel to test aerodynamics shape.  The McDonnell-Douglas Corporation is using virtual reality to explore the use of different materials and tools in building the F-18 E/F aircraft.  The study of people in relation to their environments, also known as ergonomics, may also be revolutionized by trials in cyberspace.  Engineers at the Volvo car company use virtual reality to test various designs for the dashboard configuration from the perspective of the user.  In medicine, virtual reality systems are being developed to help surgeons plan and practice delicate surgical procedures.  Philip Green, a researcher at SRI International, is developing a tele-manipulator, a special remote-controlled robot, to be used in surgery. Using instruments connected to a computer, doctors will be able to perform the operation in cyberspace, while the computer sends signals to direct thetele-manipulator.  Virtual reality may even have applications in psychiatry; for example, someone with acrophobia (a fear of heights) may be treated by having the patient stand atop virtual skyscrapers or soar through the air like a bird. CONCLUSION: Considering the rapid advances in computer technology, virtual reality machines of one decade will be viewed as a crude devices by the next decade. For example, technology is being developed to use the retina of the eye as a screen for images that could be transmitted directly to the brain through the optic nerve. Developing the technology to facilitate the remote operation of aircraft and other machines as though the user were actually in the machine is also under way. Traveling to France or Greece, including the experience of climbing the Eiffel Tower or basking on a sun-drenched beach, may be as easy as donning a headset and body suit and plugging in. Like most technological advances, virtual reality has social and psychological ramifications. Critics argue that virtual reality could cause some people to forego emotions and interpersonal relationships for the safe, controllable virtual world. But proponents say advances from the proper applications of this technology-both as a means of interacting with the real world and as an end of facilitating training and entertainment-far outweigh the potential for antisocial abuse. Is Virtual Reality a viable medium for a future in gaming? The answer to that is a simple yes. The range of actions and level of immersion, even provided by what is in development today, is above the motion sensing peripherals available, and has promise to be even better. No, it won’t be able to be done tomorrow, but ten years from now, it may well be the norm. There is still a lot of development required, but the future is bright indeed, and like Augmented Reality, the potential effects expand far beyond anything seen by gaming alone. In an educational sense, a person is capable of being whisked away to places and times otherwise unreachable, or learning dangerous procedures without ever needing to worry about a thing. And who’s to say that one day the internet won’t evolve into something akin to a ‘Matrix’, where everyone in the entire world is capable of joining a massive server to live a second life at will? So, what do you think? Is VR the future of gaming? Is it A future of gaming? REFERENCES:



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